- See for information about general RSNZ journal policies and procedures.
- Downloadable pdf version of this page.
On this page:
- Short communications
- Book reviews, forum article and letters
- Style and conventions
- Statistical and mathematical notation
- General presentation of papers
- Tables and figures
- Common abbreviations, style and notation
Papers should be submitted electronically via the relevant journal’s ScholarOne™ site.
For initial submission, a MSWord copy of the manuscript and separate files for figures and tables are preferred, but a single Word document or .pdf file of the entire paper is also acceptable.
The text of revised manuscripts must be submitted in Word, with changes in response to editorial/referee comments marked using track changes. Authors submitting a revision are also encouraged to upload a separate document responding to editorial/referee comments, and must explain or justify any suggested revisions the author is not prepared to make. Our production criteria require revised papers to be submitted with the text (and tables) in a Word file(s) that is not locked, read-only or protected in any way, and which does not contain embedded figures. Any revised text must be accompanied by separate files for each figure, named and formatted as specified below.
Original research or review papers should be no longer than 5000 words (between 5000-10000 words for New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics). This word count should exclude tables and figures but include references and the text of appendices. No absolute limit is imposed where there is sufficient reason for the manuscript to be longer than this limit or where the presentation is otherwise clear and concise. However, the author should provide justification for these larger papers at the time of submission.
Details of techniques and results which are not essential to the published paper but may be of interest to other workers should not be included in the main paper. We offer opportunities to make supplementary material available.
Short communications are papers which do not exceed 2000 words in length (excluding tables and figures). The number of tables and figures should be in proportion to the word count and the entire communication (including figures and tables) is not expected to exceed c. 4 printed pages. Short communications may be well-documented but short pieces of work that the author wishes to have published quickly. Alternatively, short communications may present results which are indicative only, and therefore of interest, but do not merit the status of a full paper. Short communications should resemble standard papers in terms of structure and contain the usual main headings.
- Book reviews are by invitation only. There are no formal limits on length, but the editors reserve the right to edit submissions for length and style.
- Forum articles are invited discussion articles on a specific issue, moderated by a guest editor.
- Consult past issues of the relevant journal for an indication of style and length of letters.
Write edit print: style manual for Aotearoa New Zealand (1997, AGPS Print in association with Lincoln University Press) and Scientific style and format: The CBE manual for authors, editors and publishers (6th edition or later, Cambridge University Press) provide good guidance on style. However, specific style recommendations in this document override the guidance given in these manuals.
Manuscripts must be written in English and spelling should conform to the Concise Oxford dictionary. We prefer Australian/New Zealand English, but consistency of style within a manuscript is most important. Our punctuation style minimises the use of periods, commas and hyphens. Please see list of preferred Common abbreviations, style and notation at the end of this document.
The International System of Units (SI) should be used wherever possible. Where non-SI units are used, the SI equivalents should also be given. In conversions, the number of significant figures quoted should truly represent the accuracy of the measurements or calculations made.
Accepted common names of active ingredients of chemical formulations should be used in preference to trade names. Trade names, where used, should be indicated and acknowledged as such with appropriate superscript suffixes (™©®) in the main text, but not in titles or figures.
Nomenclature for all extant and extinct species must conform to the relevant, current International Code of Nomenclature (e.g., ICBN, ICZN, ICNCP). Taxonomic authorities are given at first mention in the text (but not in the Abstract or Title unless they are the focus of a taxonomic paper). As a minimum, the full binomial name of a species—Galaxias divergens—should be given on the first occasion an organism is mentioned in both the main text or abstract, together with the common name (it is common practice to give common name first, followed by Latin binomial [or trinomial] in brackets). The binomial can be abbreviated thereafter if this can be done unambiguously—i.e. to G. divergens— except at the beginning of a sentence (or use the common name throughout the rest of the paper if this can be done unambiguously).
Generic and specific names should be in italics. The use of informal or ‘tag’ names is actively discouraged, but if essential enclose such names in double quotes to avoid confusion with cultivars. For botanical papers, abbreviations of authority names should be standardised according to Brummitt & Powell’s Authors of plant names (1992, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) or more recent names as updated in the International plant names index (IPNI). Authors should indicate affinities with (aff.) or comparisons to (cf.) named species. Use single quotes to denote names of cultivar varieties (i.e. Citrullus ‘Sugar Baby’).
In protologues/synonymies book titles should be abbreviated following Taxonomic literature II (Stafleu & Cowan 1976–1986; Stafleu & Mennega 1992–). Abbreviated journal citations should follow Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum (Lawrence et al. 1968) or the second edition of this work (Bridson 2004) BPH-2: Periodicals with botanical content.
Formal stratigraphic geological names and names of formally defined geological periods, epochs etc., should have initial capitals, but informal names and qualifiers should not. The online NZ stratigraphic lexicon (http://data.gns.cri.nz/stratlex/) is a useful reference. Authors publishing new fossil or mineral data are also encouraged to consult (and lodge their data in) the appropriate national online database (http://www.fred.org.nz/ or http://pet.gns.cri.nz/).
New Zealand place names should conform to official listings in the Gazetteer of NZ place names and include alternate and dual names wherever possible to avoid confusion. (http://www.linz.govt.nz/placenames/find-names/nz-gazetteer-official-names/index.aspx)
A list of place or feature names within New Zealand that include macrons can be found at: http://www.linz.govt.nz/placenames/find-names/macrons/index.aspx#NZmacrons.
Appropriate spelling and punctuation is encouraged for Māori terms, common native species names, land features or practices mentioned in papers. Guidance on language, macron use and punctuation can be obtained from the Māori Language Commission, Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori: http://www.tetaurawhiri.govt.nz/english/.
Summary statistics should be accompanied by estimates of their precision where possible. If emphasis is on the spread of the data values, rather than on the precision of the mean, then the standard deviation (SD) or the range may be given. Means will usually be accompanied either by the standard error of mean (SEM), or by the standard error of the difference between means (SED), together with a note of the number of replicates used. Do not use ‘SE’, as this is ambiguous. Confidence intervals (CI) usually at the 95% level, or Least Significant Differences (LSD) are equally acceptable.
The following style is preferred: n = 7 (for sample size); NS–not significant; P = 0.15 (only for exact probability tests, or Monte Carlo methods); otherwise use one-tailed P < 0.05 (capital, italic P, single space either side of < or = sign); where appropriate, indicate test statistic value, P value and the number of degrees of freedom associated with a test (as d.f. = 3). Mathematical and scalar variables, Greek letters and constants should generally be set in italics; operators and numerals are generally set in roman (although the partial derivative symbol, δ, should always be in italics). Separate operators from figures by a single space. Use ‘×’ not ‘x’ for multiplication.
We follow the widely accepted convention of recognizing P < 0.05, P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 as statistically ‘significant’, ‘very significant’ and ‘highly significant’. These levels can be indicated in tables/graphs by a system of asterisks (*, ** and ***, respectively) although the notation must be explained in the accompanying caption.
Authors should note the layout of headings, text, and references as shown in the latest issues of the relevant journal. Strict observance of these and the following requirements will shorten publication time. For all Word manuscripts:
- Use 1.5- or double-spaced text. Do not use columns.
- Do not use line numbering. ScholarOne™ will add numbering (and pagination) when concatenating files.
- Use one paragraph return between headings and following text, and between paragraphs.
- Headings should be in bold, not italics.
- Use italics where appropriate, NOT underlining.
The Title should convey the main subject (and geographic scope) of the manuscript in as few words as possible. Search engines often weight keywords and key phrases in Titles more than any other words in the article, so ensure your Title includes the most important terms of your manuscript.
Provide names and affiliations (Department, University, City, Country) for all co-authors. Identify the corresponding author and provide an (institutional) email address for correspondence. Full postal addresses are not required.
An Abstract of 150 words should accompany all papers. It should be able to stand alone, and not contain any undefined abbreviations, equations or reference citations. It should summarise the main result(s) and conclusions, and name any new techniques, new concepts, new taxonomic entities, and new conclusions. If there is a direct application, it should be mentioned. Many search engines weight keywords and phrases that appear in the Abstract more heavily than those in the body text when ranking a manuscript for relevance. A well-written Abstract that is specific to the manuscript and focused on the main points is more likely to attract readers.
From 5–10 keywords obtained from the whole article, not just the Title or the Abstract, should be given immediately following the Abstract. Relevant names of taxa should also be included. Include ‘New Zealand’ as a keyword if your paper relates specifically to NZ taxa, events or features. Keywords are used by abstracting agencies and search engines and should be chosen with care.
If your study is from a new area of research, the Introduction should set the scene fully and clearly. Indicate the reasons for conducting the research. Any previous work relating to your study should be summarised by a few relevant references.
These should be listed clearly and succinctly. Adequate description of the data, and of the experimental design, should precede and complement formal statistical analysis. Deviations from the intended design must be described. Data should be subjected to appropriate statistical analyses with the chosen methods clearly described (if new) or referenced. Relevant references or details of software packages should be cited. Any assumptions involved in the use of statistical tests, and any corrections or transformations to raw data made to meet these assumptions must be described.
Present your own information and figures without reference to (or discussion of ) other work. Tabular material and figures are especially important for providing comparative results without resorting to detailed textual descriptions. Tables and figures, with their captions, should be understandable on their own, and not rely on the supporting text.
Relate the results of your study to those of previous studies. The results should be interpreted with the support of evidence or suitable references. Anomalous or unexpected results should be explained and any caveats to interpretation discussed.
Any conclusions offered should be listed clearly at the end of the Discussion or in a separate Conclusions section.
List supporting institutions and the names (untitled) and the affiliations of people who have assisted in some way with your research. Acknowledge any sources of funding.
We offer authors the opportunity to submit supplementary data files, within reason, to the ScholarOne™ Author Centre. Such file(s) must be clearly identified as a ‘supplemental file’ at upload. Supplemental files will contain data or information which facilitate further interpretation or analysis of material presented in the main paper. This supplementary material will be hosted online only via a separate link beside the published paper. The material may be referred to in the text of the main paper in order to bring the reader’s attention to the fact that supplementary material relating to the manuscript exists, but the published paper must be able to be understood, in full, without the need for the reader to refer to the supplementary files i.e. the final, published, paper must be able to ‘stand alone’. Tables and figures within the supplementary files should be labelled as Table S1, Table S2, Fig. S1, Fig, S2 etc.
. Try to keep files below 10MB. Use Zip compression.
Documents/Tables: .xls, .csv, .doc, .pdf, .txt
Images: .png, .jpg, .gif
Movies: .mpg, .mov, .avi
Audio: .wav, .mp3
Authors are solely responsible for the accuracy of the references. Citations are to follow the Harvard (Name-year) System. In the text, refer to author and year of publication as Mellanby (2009) or (Mellanby 2009) as appropriate. Use an ampersand for two authors (Mellanby & Wilkins 2002) and ‘et al.’ (no italics) for more than two authors. Separate multiple citations by a semicolon, but citations by the same author by commas (Smith et al. 1970, 1972; Jones 2001). Our Reference section style lists author surname then author initial(s) (no full stops). Multiple authors are separated by commas with no ‘and’ before the last name. Works by the same author(s) and published in the same year are distinguished by letters appended to the year, in both text and References (Jones 2001a,b). Page ranges are indicated by an unspaced en-dash (not hyphens). An in-text citation of a specific page in a work (if necessary) should appear as (Larsen et al. 1971, p. 245). In taxonomic papers, authorities need not be listed under References, except when further cited in the text.
Examples of style for common reference types are given below. Please also consult recent issues of the journal.
Periodicals: Titles of periodicals should be quoted in full and followed by volume numbers (part number in brackets) and page numbers, all in roman typeface (i.e., not italics). Do not include issue number if pagination runs sequentially throughout the issues for a given volume.
Sedgeley JA, O’Donnell CFJ 2004. Roost use by long-tailed bats in South Canterbury: examining predictions of roost-site selection in a highly fragmented landscape. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 28: 1–18.
Books: Do not italicise titles, give them initial capitals (unless proper nouns), or place in inverted commas. Give edition, if relevant. The location and name of the publisher (in that order) should be given. Plus pagination.
King CM ed. 1990. The handbook of New Zealand mammals. Auckland, Oxford University Press. 600 p.
McCullagh P, Nelder JA 1989. Generalized linear models. 2nd edition. London, Chapman & Hall. 532 p.
Articles within a compiled monograph or book: Give name(s) of editor(s) where known.
O’Donnell CFJ 2005. New Zealand long-tailed bat. In: King CM ed. The handbook of New Zealand mammals. 2nd edition. Melbourne, Oxford University Press. Pp. 98–109.
Speakman JR, Thomas DW 2003. Physiological ecology and energetics of bats. In: Kunz TH, Fenton MB eds. Bat ecology. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press. Pp. 430–490.
Report, bulletin, proceedings: Provide as much information as possible regarding venue, editors, publisher/sponsor and pagination.
Douglas GB, Donkers P, Foote AG, Barry TN 1993. Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannins in forage species. Proceedings of the XVII International Grassland Congress, Palmerston North, New Zealand 8–21 February 1993. Pp. 204–206.
Leathwick JR, Clarkson BD, Whaley PT 1995. Vegetation of the Waikato Region: current and historical perspectives. Landcare Research, Hamilton, New Zealand. LC9596/022. 59 p.
Parker DI, Cook JA, Lewis SW 1996. Effects of timber harvest on bat activity in southeastern Alaska’s temperate rainforests. In: Barclay RMR, Brigham RM eds. Bats and forests symposium, 19–21 October 1995, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Working paper 23/ 1996. Victoria, British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. Pp. 277–292.
Shaw WB, Eades PA, Beadel SM 2000. Survey, monitoring and management of indigenous biodiversity in Fletcher Challenge Forests Central North Island Plantation forests. Contract Report No. 334. 41 p.
Websites: Do not underline urls. Provide date of retrieval/viewing/accession.
Farr DF, Rossman AY, Palm ME, McCray EB undated. Fungal databases. Systematic Botany & Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Retrieved 6 April 2003, from http://nt.ars-grin.gov/ fungaldatabases.
Langton M, White T 2001. Spectronet version 1.2. Palmerston North, Massey University. http://awcmee.massey.ac.nz/downloads.htm [accessed 18 September 2001].
Unpublished work: Restricted citation of unpublished work, work in preparation, recently submitted work, or personal observations or communications may be made.
Cite in text only as (J. Quinn, DOC, pers. comm. 1999) or (J. Quinn pers. comm.) or (J. Quinn unpubl. data) or (J. Quinn pers. obs). Inclusion of date and affiliation information is preferred.
Unpublished theses: Should be cited in the text and listed in the References. Provide pagination if known.
Gillingham NJ 1996. The behaviour and ecology of long-tailed bats (Chalinolobus tuberculatus Gray) in the central North Island. Unpublished MSc thesis, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand. 115 p.
Unpublished papers may be cited in the text, only if accepted for publication elsewhere, as (Bloggs & Smith in press); and as ‘in press’ in the References. Provide pagination if known; if not, provide volume (issue) no., or a DOI.
Bloggs R, Smith JH in press. Merit, mobility and method. British Journal of Intent 53: 575–582.
ScholarOne™ requires manuscripts compiled using EndNote to be submitted via a separate route to those not using EndNote. Please ensure you select the correct option at upload. A RSNZ-styled EndNote style file is available to download from the RSNZ journals’ website.
- Most RSNZ journals are published in B5 format. The maximum print area for a page in B5 journals is 148 mm (w) × 195 mm (h). The New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics is published in an A4 format, with a maximum print area of 190 mm (w) × 230 mm (h). However, tables and figures may be printed within fractions of whole page print areas and will be published at the smallest size consistent with clarity and compatible with page and column format. To avoid cluttered or unclear images or tables after reduction, authors should bear print and column area in mind, and consult recent issues of the relevant journal, when creating tables and detailed figures.
- Reproduction of colour images is free in the online editions of journals. Authors who want colour reproduction of images in the print edition of a journal will be charged a fee based on the number of pages involved. Figures that appear in black-and-white in the print edition of a journal will appear in colour in the online edition, if colour originals are supplied.
- We prefer figures to be submitted as separate electronic files since ScholarOne™ will concatenate uploaded text, table and figure files to create a single file for review. (However, Word or PDF files of an entire paper containing embedded figures and tables are also acceptable for initial submissions.)
- For revisions of papers, a separate electronic file must be supplied for each figure and formatted as specified below.
- Failure to comply with these specifications will result in the figures and tables being returned and a delay in publication.
The publishing team maintains a list of people who can assist authors with formatting and preparing images of publishable quality. All fees incurred are the responsibility of the author. See also Taylor and Francis Online.
- Only data essential to the understanding of the text should be included in tables.
- Tables should be printed on separate sheets, with a separate list of captions and either placed after the References section of the main paper or uploaded as separate Word document/s.
- The caption should include any information relevant to the table as a whole, and where applicable, the levels of probability attached to statistics in the body of the table.
- Tables should be numbered serially in arabic numerals in the order in which they are first cited in the text.
- Tables should be arranged with regard to the proportions of the printed page.
- Tables will be formatted to journal style for publication. Authors should consult recent issues of a journal to familiarise themselves with its characteristics and bear this in mind when creating complex Tables.
- Tables which form part of the main paper or its appendices must be supplied as editable Word files. Word’s ‘Table Tool’ is acceptable. Other table programs (i.e. Excel) are not acceptable formats for tables in the main paper and can only be used in (unedited) supplemental files.
- Use the tabulation key to line up columns. Do not use returns within table cells or box lines around tables.
- Abbreviations in the table should be adequately explained in the caption or in table footnotes. Use superscript numbers for table notes. Avoid asterisks as these can be confused with probability level indicators.
- Descriptive notes should be kept to a minimum.
- Only use capital initials for the first word (or proper names) in column heads.
- In column heads, place SI units of measurement (in brackets) after the variable they describe: Distance (m).
- Horizontal rules should be placed clearly under the column heads and at the top and bottom of each table.
- Figures should be used only where they are essential to elucidate the text.
- Figures in the main paper should be numbered consecutively in arabic numerals regardless of whether they are photographs, line drawings, slides, plates or graphs, in the order in which they are first cited in the text. Cite in text as: Figure 1 (at the start of sentence or legend), Fig. 1A–C (mid-sentence), or Figs. 2–3 (for multiple citations mid-text).
- Captions for simple figures should following the following style: Figure 1 Caption text. (Initial capital on first word only and ending with a full stop).
- Captions for composite figures in the main paper should follow the following style: Figure 1 Brief description of the entire figure. A, Specific description of part A. B, Specific description of part B. (Capital initial letter for part followed by a comma, both in bold. Descriptive text after comma starts with capital initial letter and ends with full stop.)
- Use visual cues/symbols rather than verbal explanations of symbols, such as ‘open red triangles’. Number appendix figures in a separate sequence, prefaced by ‘A’, within each appendix: Figure A1.1, A1.2 etc.
- The style of the figures within any one paper should be as closely matched as possible.
- Provide a list of figure captions after the References section of the manuscript.
- Lettering in figures should be in sans-serif type (such as Helvetica medium).
- Only the first letter of the first word of each label, and of any proper names, in capitals.
- Names of all hydrographic features and of generic and species names should be in italics.
- Parts of composite figures should be labelled A or B or C etc., on or next to the image (capitals only, no commas, periods, colons or brackets).
- Symbols, grid marks, line thicknesses (minimum reduced width 0.25 mm), and ruled or dotted patterns should be of sufficient size and density to withstand reduction without fading away or blocking up.
- For graphical figures, grid marks should point inwards (unless they obscure information on the graph itself).
- Keys must sit within a clear area of the figure, below it, or run inline in the caption text.
- Fonts on keys or axis legends must be no smaller than 8 pt when reduced to final production size (i.e. to fit within full page or half-page print area).
- Legends to axes (horizontal and vertical) should run parallel to the axes, from left to right and from bottom to top. Only use capital initials for the first letter of the first word. State the value being measured followed by its appropriate SI unit in parentheses e.g., ‘Increase in weight (kg)’.
- Bar scales should be used on photographs and diagrams, not stated magnifications.
The higher the resolution, the sharper the final image appears. Resolution is commonly expressed as dots per inch (dpi). Authors may chose to submit lower resolution image files with initial submissions to reduce file size. However, it is in the author’s interest to provide the highest quality figure format possible. The figure files should include any labels or markers that are part of the figure itself, but not the figure number, title, caption, or notes (which will be typeset separately). The filename for a graphic should be descriptive of the graphic, e.g. Figure_1, Fig2A.
The following resolutions are acceptable:
- Colour or black-and-white photographic images, minimum resolution 300dpi at journal page proportions.
- Line art or combination images, minimum resolution of 600 dpi at journal page proportions.
Images > 40 megapixels can be uploaded to ScholarOne™ but will not display as PDF or HTML proofs within the system.
EPS: Line art can be supplied as .eps files (in Adobe Illustrator, for example). Images prepared using Sigmaplot® should be saved in the .eps format. There are virtually no limits to scaling line art saved as .eps files. They can also contain TIFF images, so are suitable for photographs. However, please make sure that all fonts are embedded (saved as ‘outlines’) and that line weights are not defined as ‘hairline’.
TIFF: This is the most universal and widely supported format across Windows and Mac platforms. Most graphics packages can save a file as a .tif file. Large files must be saved using LZW compression.
PSD and JPEG: Photographs can be supplied as .psd (Photoshop) or .jpg files. To be suitable for reproduction a .jpg file must be large (> 1MB) at journal page proportions. These formats are not suitable for line art or diagrams.
AI: Graphics created in Adobe Illustrator can be supplied as .ai files.
Other types of graphical file are generally not suitable for professional reproduction and will not be accepted. In particular, we cannot accept figure files embedded in MSWord documents, or files from MSExcel, or MSPowerpoint. Figures downloaded from the internet, and .gif files will not meet our resolution requirements. If an author cannot supply good quality graphics in suitable file formats, the acceptance and publication of a manuscript may be significantly delayed.
|RSNZ preferred style||NOT:||Meaning/comments|
|‘e.g.,’ (USA) or ‘e.g.’ (UK)||‘eg’ or ‘eg.’ or ‘e.g’||exempli gratia (for example).|
|‘i.e.,’ (USA) or ‘i.e.’ (UK)||‘ie’ or ‘ie,’||id est (that is).|
|‘et al.’||‘et al’ or ‘et. al.’ or ‘et al.’||et alii, et aliae, et alia (and others). Not italics.|
|‘c.’||‘ca.’, or ‘approx.’ or ‘~’||circa (about, approximately).|
|‘200 p.’||‘p’, or ‘P’, or ‘pg’ or ‘pg.’||Page(s)—as in pagination.|
|‘pp.’ ‘(or ‘Pp.’ if after period)||‘pp’, or ‘Pp’||Pages—for range listed.
|‘pers. comm.’||‘pers comm’, or ‘pers comm.’||Personal communication. Dates and affiliations preferred.|
|‘156–157’||‘156-157’, or ‘156–57’, or ‘156–7’||Use unspaced en-dash not hyphen. Second page number not abbreviated|
|‘1997–98’ and ‘1999–2000’||‘1997/98’, ‘1997-98’ etc.||Use unspaced en-dash not hyphen for ranged dates in text/legends/captions. Note clarification at century change.|
|‘3–6 m’, ‘15–20 days’||
‘3-6 m’, or
|Use unspaced en-dash for ranges and set unit, after a space, after second value.|
|Spell out numbers one to nine, unless before a unit of measurement; then 1000, 10,000 etc||’1 to 9′, ’1000′, or ’10 000′||Six pigs, but 6 km.|
|‘6 km’, ‘20 kg’; but ‘10 °C’, ‘24%’, ’20°S’, ‘22°15′30″S’||‘6km’, ‘20kg’, ‘10° C’, ‘24 %’, ’20° S’ or
‘22 °, 15 ′, 30 ″ S’
Space between value and unit unless planar °, ′, ″ , or % , in which case set close to value.
For ranges, ‘6%–20%’ or ‘6% to 20%’ preferred.
|Single quotes||Double quotes, unless enclosing a botanical tag name||Use curly quotes, not straight quotes or prime symbols (‘).|
|‘sp.’ (singular) and ‘spp.’ (plural)||‘sp‘. , or ‘spp.‘ etc.||Do not confuse singular and plural use. Not italics.|
|‘4500 yr BP’, ‘210 Ma’, ‘3400 cal yr BP’||‘Ma BP’, ‘mya’, ‘m. yr.’, ‘m. yr. ago’, ‘m.y.’||To describe absolute ages and differences in time, as appropriate.|
|‘Cretaceous Period’, ‘Late Jurassic Epoch’, ‘early Mesozic Era’ etc.||Formal term times have Initial Capital Letters; no capitals for modifiers (such as ‘early’) in informal terms.|
|AD 1250 but 4500 yr BP||1250 AD ,
|AD before date.|
|‘DOC’||‘DoC’||Abbreviation for NZ Department of Conservation is all upper case.|