Approximately 34 alien fish species have established populations in Australian freshwaters with a further 53 native fish species translocated within the country. Twelve pathways of human-assisted dispersal for freshwater fish have been identified in Australia, and each is discussed with examples given. The major pathway has been the aquarium or ornamental fish industry, with 22 of the 34 alien species originating from this source. Management actions to date have largely focused on eradication or mitigation, with little national or interstate coordination of efforts. Future management actions are suggested, with priorities being public and industry education and the development of coordinated strategies based on pest management principles.