Hugh Mannering Bibby, Programme Leader, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, pioneered crustal deformation measurements in New Zealand through his work in geodetics. One of two techniques he developed, the simultaneous reduction method of analysis, has become the international standard method for dealing with a mixture of modern and old survey data. As a result of his pioneering geodetics work, scientists can now use the information gathered from repeated GPS measurements and triangulation surveys to determine relationships between crustal deformation, faulting and seismicity.
Judith Mary Caroline Binney, Professor of History, University of Auckland, is an historian of inter-cultural contact and conflict. She has immersed herself in both European and Māori belief systems, specialising in analysing the complexities of the mingling of the two. Her publications, The Legacy of Guilt (1968), Mihaia (1979), Nga Morehu (1986) and Redemption Songs: A Life of Te Kooti Akirangi Te Turuki (1996), constitute a major body of work which has made New Zealanders think differently about our past. Professor Binney received the 1996 Montana New Zealand Book of the Year Award for Redemption Songs. She works in Māori as well as English and in oral as well as archival sources.
Alan Esmond Bollard, Secretary to the Treasury, Wellington, is an economist specialising in the fields of macroeconomics and econometrics. He has an established reputation both within New Zealand and internationally for his investigations of the small business sector, the reform of the New Zealand economy, competition policy and law and economic integration in the Asia-Pacific region. Dr Bollard has advanced the study of the New Zealand economy and its international links and has also been foremost in the practical application of that knowledge.
Stephen Oliver Brennan, Senior Scientific Officer, Canterbury Health Laboratories, has an international reputation for his work on the genetics, structure, function and metabolism of mutant proteins, especially blood proteins. Particularly significant was his demonstration that mutations in the plasma protein, alpha — 1 — antitrypsin, could lead either to emphysema through loss of function or to a bleeding disorder because the antitrypsin actually became an antithrombin. More recently he has focused on the use of the new technique of electrospray mass spectrometry for measurement of molecular masses of whole proteins and characterisation of novel mutants, especially of the serum albumins.
Marston Donald Edward Conder, Professor of Mathematics, University of Auckland, is a leading New Zealand group theorist. His research specialises in the important areas of combinatorial, geometric and computational group theory, and the study of groups in terms of generators and relations using ideas from combinatorics, geometry and other areas of mathematics. His research has diverse and significant applications in other areas of mathematics (especially geometry and topology) as well as theoretical physics and chemistry, crystallography and, more recently, via graph theory to the construction and analysis of efficient communication networks.
Garth James Smith Cooper, Professor of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, University of Auckland, has an international reputation in endocrinology and biochemistry. He discovered and characterised the human pancreatic hormone, amylin, and set up the Amylin Pharmaceutical Corporation in the United States to develop this discovery. Amylin is now in Stage III clinical trials as a co-replacement with insulin in the treatment of Type I diabetes and disorders of amylin production have also been linked to Type II diabetes. Professor Cooper severed his links with the Amylin Pharmaceutical Corporation when he returned to New Zealand in 1993 but continued his research to show that amylin and related hormones have effects on cardiovascular and bone metabolism. Recently, research in Auckland suggests that it may have a therapeutic role in post-menopausal osteoporosis.
Clive Eric Davies, Team Leader, Industrial Research Limited, is a world authority in the science and applications of techniques appropriate for the handling, processing and characterising of particulate materials. His work has led to practical and economically viable solutions to a variety of industrial problems. Especially significant has been the development of the slot flowmeter for bulk solids and related instrumentation for measuring particle size, bulk density and changes in size distribution. He has also used non-invasive techniques with sound waves to determine flow rates in gas/solids suspensions.
Richard Lewis Maxwell Faull, Professor of Anatomy, University of Auckland, has a record of almost 30 years’ research on the anatomy and chemistry of the mammalian brain and spinal cord, on the chemical anatomy of the basal ganglia in mammalian and human brains and on neurodegenerative diseases of the human brain. His observations of the potential of transplanted fetal neurons to reverse the anatomical and chemical changes seen in animal models of neurodegenerative disease have provided neuroscientific basis for clinical trials in the USA and Europe on the use of transplanted fetal neurons as a possible therapeutic approach in Huntington’s disease.
Richard Hubert Furneaux, Team Manager and Distinguished Scientist, Industrial Research Limited, is internationally recognised for his contributions to carbohydrate chemistry applied to the design, synthesis and evaluation of new pesticides and pharmaceuticals and to the isolation, analysis and modification of industrially useful polysaccharides. His strategic and applied research has created opportunities for the chemical industry in New Zealand and for adding value to New Zealand primary produce and by-products.
David John Galloway, Senior Scientist (Part-time), Biosystematics Programme, Landcare Research, Honorary Research Fellow, University of Otago has been a leading international researcher in lichenology for more than 20 years. He has brought innovative biochemical approaches to the systematics of lichens. His publication of such landmark reference works as the Flora of New Zealand Lichens (1985), the first for the Southern Hemisphere, and New Zealand Lichens, Checklist, Key and Glossary (1997) has inspired a renewed interest in lichens in New Zealand and of comparative studies throughout the Southern Hemisphere. His scholarship extends beyond lichen systematics into biogeography, biochemistry and the history of science.
Edward Lewis Glynn, Professor of Teacher Education, University of Waikato, has made a major contribution to research, theory and practice in educational psychology in New Zealand and internationally and his research has had an important impact on educational practice. He has used applied behaviour analysis as a tool to carry out systematic research on key educational issues as diverse as classroom behaviour management, pupil reading difficulties, effective writing programmes and special needs teaching. His main contribution to education in New Zealand has been to Māori education, especially in relationship to mathematics and reading.
John David Harvey, Professor of Physics, University of Auckland. Between his early successes in theoretical nuclear physics and his more recent internationally recognised contributions to non-linear optics and laser physics, he has devoted a major part of his research work to biophysics. Especially noteworthy are his observations on the in vivo replication of nucleic acid and the motility of spermatozoa. John Harvey has also developed a centre for research in laser physics in New Zealand and has an international reputation in experimental laser physics.
John Hodgson, Professor of Pastoral Science, Massey University, has made a distinguished contribution to our understanding of how pasture sward characteristics influence the feed intake of grazing ruminants. He was one of the first grassland scientists to determine how features such as sward height and density influenced the amount of herbage prehended and digested. His work contributed to a unifying theory of the control of intake in grazing animals and has had a major effect on farming practice.
Alan Bernard Kaiser, Associate Professor of Physics, Victoria University of Wellington, has made important contributions in condensed matter physics to theoretical models of superconductors, of alloys, of disordered metals and of conducting polymers. His research spans a wide ambit of what is regarded as contemporary solid-state physics. Of the many materials studied, high-temperature superconductors and, more recently, buckyballs (fullerenes) and carbon nanotubes are at the forefront of current materials research. He is best known for research on the thermoelectric properties of normal metals, semiconductors and high temperature superconductors.
Roger Brian Keey, Emeritus Professor of Chemical Engineering in the University of Canterbury and Director of the University’s Wood Technology Research Centre, has a worldwide reputation in the area of application of the fundamentals of heat- and mass-transfer processes in the understanding of industrial drying technology. His particular contribution has been the use of the characteristic drying rate concept in following drying behaviour, but his research has brought insights into the drying of products as diverse as dairy products, wool fibres, concrete and timber.
David Martin Lambert, Professor of Ecology, Massey University, whose research into the nature of specific-mate recognition systems has played a major role in the development of the recognition concept of species. An important feature of his work has been the use of modern DNA technology. He has used minisatellite DNA fingerprinting and single locus probes to derive unambiguous patterns of parentage in a diverse array of endemic species, including pukeko, skua, Adelie penguin and the endangered Chatham Islands black robin. His DNA-based techniques for sexing birds have applied these to species such as takahe, black stilts and kea.
Richard John Norris, Professor of Geology, University of Otago, is distinguished for his work on plate tectonics and geology. He is identified as the major stimulus and the link that has tied together the collaborative field work, the studies of sedimentation and of metamorphism and the modelling that has resulted in what is now our modern view of the Alpine Fault and the Southern Alps. He has also made substantial contributions in his combination of the plate tectonics and geology in terms of the tectonic evolution of New Zealand for both the New Zealand Mesozoic and the Cenozoic and in his contributions to ideas of fluid flow and deformation mechanisms in metamorphic belts applied to mineralisation and veining in metamorphic rocks.
Erik Newland Olssen, Professor of History, University of Otago, a historian who specialises in labour history and who has a strong reputation as a social historian working on Pakeha New Zealand experience. He is credited with introducing American quantitative historical methods to New Zealand, and noted for using New Zealand case studies to address important sets of questions and issues which are important internationally. His study of Caversham, a working class suburb of Dunedin, is seen as the most important piece of social history undertaken in this country and has brought him international acclaim.
Weston James Sandle, Professor of Physics, University of Otago, has developed the research group in atom and laser physics at the University of Otago into an internationally acknowledged centre of excellence. He has performed the first experiment demonstrating absorptive optical bistability and his work on optical bistability and polarisation switching is at the forefront of nonlinear optics research. His studies of the fundamental behaviour of laser-driven atoms in optical cavities have been extended to include the laser cooling of atoms in magnetic traps. The recent success in achieving Bose-Einstein condensation makes his group one of a small number around the world with the ability to explore this new field of research.
Maxwell Gilbert Shepherd, Managing Director, Zenith Technology Ltd, Dunedin, whose research has largely concerned the biology of fungi and is especially noted for his studies of the human pathogen, Candida albicans. In 1993 he left the University of Otago as Professor of Oral Biology at the Dental School, to become Managing Director of Zenith Technology, a technology transfer company in Dunedin. He has continued to work in research and development and is actively involved in commercialising human and animal products including a colostrum supplement for newborn animals, a live vaccine for the control of scabby mouth in sheep and goats, a radioimmunoassay technique for desmopressin and a product for the control of wild rabbits based on rabbit calicivirus.
Joyce Mary Waters, Senior Research Fellow and Associate Professor in Chemistry, Massey University, is regarded as a leading scientist in X-ray crystallography, especially of small molecules. An early publication described the first structure determination of a transition metal hybrid, a type of compound of central importance in modern chemistry and catalysis. Other successes include the structural characterisation of large gold clusters and the recognition of solvent dichloromethane functioning as a ligand. In 1990—91 she was the first, and to date only, woman President of the New Zealand Institute of Chemistry.
Gregor William Yeates, Senior Scientist, Landcare Research, is considered the world’s leading authority in soil nematode ecology, a subject of economic and ecological importance. Major research efforts have included studies of nematodes in relation to nutrient turnover, disturbance, detrital food webs and regulation of ecosystem productivity; nematode taxonomy, biogeography and biodiversity; the relation of biological control to soil processes; effects of heavy metals on soil microbial and microfaunal communities; nematode trophic guild classification, and the relation of carbon dioxide and global warming to soil animal communities, the first of its kind for soil fauna.