Information about Ethics may be found at http://www.nzase.org.nz/ethics.html
- CREST projects must meet commonly accepted ethical standards.
- Students must consider these before a project involving human or animal participants can be approved.
- Considering ethics is a very good learning experience for students.
- If you need ethics approval, you must apply for and obtain approval before you begin your investigation.
- Any activity in schools and early childhood centres in which a live animal [mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish (bony or cartilagineous), octopus, squid, crab (including half crab), lobster, crayfish (including freshwater crayfish), mammalian, avian or reptilian foetus in the last half of gestation or development, or marsupial pouched young as defined in the Animal Welfare Act 1999] is used for teaching or research requires ethical approval.
Animal Ethics: Information on the animal ethics, the definition of an animal within the Animal Welfare Act, guidelines, examples and application forms can be found at http://www.nzase.org.nz/ethics.html
Human Ethics: For guidelines for the use of Humans in experiments and research ,please refer to the information on this website.
These ethical practice guidelines are for students and teachers engaged in school research and other projects that involve people (other students, family, members of the community).
- tasting, touching or smelling different foods or other substances?
- taking any medicines, drugs or other substances?
- applying any substance to their bodies?
- undergoing any physical or medical tests?
- giving you any information of a personal, private of confidential nature?
- giving information that could identify them?
If it does then you must think about the safety of yourself and the participants involved.
People should only be asked to contribute to research that will give meaningful results. Design the research carefully and think about how you are going to use or analyse the results before you ask people to contribute to your work by being research participants.
If your project involves asking questions, you could try them first on your friends or relatives to determine whether they appear reasonable and acceptable, particularly from a stranger if that is how it will be posed.
When you ask people to participate in your research, you need to tell them, in a language they can easily understand:
- the purpose of your research
- what will be required of them
- what risks or benefits there will be to them if they agree to work with you
- that they can withdraw from your research at any time
- if you are collecting information about people they should know beforehand whether or not the information can be linked to a particular person, what you will do with that information, who else will see it, and how you will dispose of your records when the project is over.
It is best to give this information to people in a written form and to give them a chance to think about it and to ask any questions, before they make any decisions.
Any research that involves bodily fluids or the ingesting of material (eg such as taking any kind of medication, ingesting substances, testing body tissue, saliva, skin scrapes, use of pain or deprivation of basic food or drink) should only be done under the guidance of a medical person. It is very unlikely that you will be doing such projects while still at school.
Any project should only involve minimal risk ie any adverse effect should be very small, and the probability of that effect occurring should be low. For instance, if one is asking people for information, it should only be the sort of information it would be safe, easily volunteered and appropriate to ask in an ordinary conversation, or if you are asking people to exert themselves, physically it should only be to a level that that person might do in everyday life.
A parent or guardian needs to give their permission for anybody under 16, as well as the young person agreeing. The parent or guardian needs to have all the information that you would give a research participant. You should keep records of who has given consent and how it has been given whenever the research involves more than observation of individuals in their normal activities.
CREST is about encouraging good practice so you might like to consider these general ethical principles when planning your project
- Respect for your participants
- People do not have to help you with your research and they do not have to give you a reason. If you are conducting a class survey it can’t be compulsory to participate.
- You need to understand the cultural and religious beliefs of your participants and make sure your research is not disrespectful or offensive
- All the data belongs to the respondents so it is nice to give them a summary of your final research finding at the end so they share in what you found out.
- Minimise harm to the participants
- Harm can be things like pain, stress, fatigue, emotional distress, and embarrassment. Think about what you want to do in terms of the harm it could cause. The best way to do this is to test your ideas with your CREST group (teacher, consultant/s and assessor). That way you will get a range of opinions for you to consider. Once you have a plan you should ask people from your participant group how they would feel about the activities or questions you propose.
- You may need to alter your design to minimise the harm. For example if you are doing a fitness test and collecting weight data would you do this in public or test each person on their own?
- Informed and Voluntary Consent
- Participants should give signed informed consent. You should keep these safely until the end of your project
- You must give them enough information about your project and testing you want to do for them to make a good decision.
- They must not feel pressured to participate in the project.
- It is best if the information given to them in advance of the research, in written form, so they have time to think about it.
- Participants can withdraw at any time without giving you a reason and you should return any data already collected unless they say you can keep it.
- Respects for Privacy and Confidentiality
- If the person could be identified they must give their consent. If you want to use the data in a way they could be identified, use photos of them or video material you should get their written permission
- You must keep private and confidential any information you are given.
- Where are you going to store your information = locked filing cabinet
- What is the data going to be used for= your CREST project
- How will it be destroyed after the project = shredder or burnt.
- Who else will see the raw data = you , your teacher or maybe your consultant.
- It is good practice to tell your participants this information when they are giving their consent, by putting on your information form.
- Avoidance of Unnecessary Deception
- Sometimes it is necessary to hide the true reason for the research in order to collect valid data. This is a very rare occasion but if it is necessary and the deception will not cause harm then it can be done. You should make sure that the participants are told as soon as possible what the real reason for the research was. Ideally this should be before they leave the testing room.
- Social and Cultural Sensitivity
- It is very easy to only see things from our own cultural and religious perspective. Do some research and consultant with people from the group you wish to research. Be sensitive to what you are being told is important to them when you are planning your project and then check you plan with your experts.
Social and cultural awareness in research assumes an appreciation of those attitudes, values, beliefs, protocols and actions which constitute the intellectual property, and cultural traditions of ethnic groups.
Social and cultural awareness include actions which recognize and respect the cultural identities of others, and safely meet their needs.
This could involve:
- Clear, open and respectful communication to develop trust;
- Collaboration between researchers and participants engaging with others in a two-way dialogue where knowledge is shared;
- Modification of plans, where and when necessary, following discussions with participating groups; Approval and/or support by ethnic group(s) involved in the study must be sought before fieldwork begins;
- Where a Maori population is the focus ,respect must be given to the principles of participation, partnership, and protection that are implicit in the Treaty of Waitangi;
- Research methodology reflects trust between persons, the rights, interests, cultural and intellectual property of the research participants being safeguarded;
- No exploitation of the research participants for personal gain or financial remuneration;
- The full contribution of participating population(s) should be recognised in the publication of results.
Will you need ethics approval? Yes / No
- If your school has a Human Ethics committee then you are required to submit an application if their guidelines require it.
- You may like to ask your consultant if they require your project to go through their organisations Human Ethics Committee. If they do, ask them to help you with this process. This is an excellent CREST learning opportunity.
- If you are dealing with a group that is unable to give informed consent then you need to be especially careful. If working with children (under 16) then you need to get their parents informed consent as well as that of the participant. Make sure you give age appropriate information to the participants.
- While it is exciting to discuss your project with friends and family you should remember to respect the privacy of the participants especially if they go to your school and could be identified by others.