# Andrew John Pullan

(1963–2012)

#### PhD *Auck* FRSNZ

**Andrew Pullan** was born in 1963. He was dux of Aorere College in Mangere, won a University Scholarship and studied mathematics at The University of Auckland as an undergraduate, before joining the Engineering Science Department at The University of Auckland as a PhD student of Professor Ian Collins in 1985. After receiving his degree in 1988, he spent a brief period working for Winstones/Fletcher Challenge, before returning to the University as a lecturer in 1989. Andrew then moved quickly up the academic ranks at The University of Auckland culminating in a personal chair in 2006.

Andrew was an excellent mathematician. He was interested in many problems of applied mathematics, principally in the area of modelling using finite-element methods. His greatest research contributions were to problems arising in biomedical engineering. Andrew entered this field in the 1990s, studying finite-element models of the heart in collaboration with Professor Peter Hunter. This quickly led to the establishment of his own group of students and postdocs, with a focus on measuring and modelling the heart’s electrical activity. In 2003, Andrew was awarded a James Cook Research Fellowship to study electrical activity in the stomach and intestinal tract. This was a considerable honour and a fitting testimonial to his status as a rising star, given that he had only just become an associate professor.

One does not typically associate electrical activity with the gastrointestinal tract, but this is needed to transport material along the intestine via contractions of muscles within the intestinal wall. These muscle contractions are regulated by electrical signals, a so-called “slow wave” that is always present, and superimposed peaks in potential that generate the contractions. Misbehaviour of this electrical activity is thought to be responsible for many debilitating disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and so models of this activity are of great interest to clinicians.

An important challenge in Andrew’s research was solving the inverse problem - in simple terms, how can one estimate values for the hidden electrical data inside the human body from measurements taken on its surface? This is not only a problem of instrumentation, but involved some deep mathematics involving the estimation of under-determined systems. In Andrew’s own words, “It is impossible to recreate the electrical state of each cell in the heart from surface electrical recordings, no matter how many surface recordings are available…multiple configurations of cellular activity can give rise to the same ECG signals”. In other words one is trying to extract more information from the signals than they contain. The contribution of Andrew and his team was to use highly detailed mathematical models of human anatomy to narrow down the possibilities.

Andrew’s James Cook Research Fellowship was a period of intense productivity, culminating in a research monograph “Mathematically Modelling the Electrical Activity of the Heart: From Cell to Body surface and Back Again”, co-authored with two of his graduate students, and many influential papers on modelling gastrointestinal bioelectrical activity. Andrew was elected to Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 2009. It is clear that he was destined for even higher honours.

Andrew had a reputation with students for being an inspiring teacher, engaging them with entertaining demonstrations, often at his own expense. His inaugural professorial lecture in 2007 was a tour-de-force. A large monitor displayed electrical body measurements of Andrew himself, obtained in real time as he paced around the lecture hall. He regularly appeared in the Engineering School's top 5 lecturer awards, and attracted the brightest students as PhD students. Andrew was an enthusiastic and generous PhD supervisor. His students would often repay this generosity by helping him with his house renovations.

Andrew was a hero of the Department of Engineering Science. Although he did most of his research in the Auckland Bioengineering Institute, his loyalties were to the Department, and he was a champion of the Engineering Science degree. He could see the opportunity provided by the degree to students who, like himself, came from less privileged backgrounds. As Head of Department from 2008 to 2010, Andrew committed himself to the task of promoting the Engineering Science degree throughout the country to maximise the potential for all students to benefit from the same opportunity that he had enjoyed. He created "New Zealand's next Engineering Scientist" Modelling Competition, which is carried out each year in over 100 New Zealand secondary schools. It offers scholarships (now called the Pullan Prize) to the winners and serves to attract some of the country's brightest mathematical talents to our programme.

Andrew was a thoroughly decent human being. He was a devoted husband to Patti, and proud and supportive of his children Zeke and Xanthe. Andrew showed great kindness and generosity towards his friends, colleagues and students. He was a very courageous man in all respects. His colleagues will remember him standing up for what he believed was right, without concern for his reputation.

Andrew died of a metastatic melanoma. He was optimistic for the success of a new BRAF drug treatment, and his blog describing the ordeal of this treatment was called "Andrew's recovery". To help fund the treatment, Professor David Ryan set up a trust which received contributions from Andrew’s friends all around the world. The treatment appeared to be working well, though Andrew was in considerable pain. In early March, it was discovered that the cancer had mutated, and that the treatment would no longer work. He went into Mercy Hospice, Auckland, and died on 7 March 2012, aged 48.

*Professor Andy Philpott*

Dept of Engineering Science, The University of Auckland

**Publications**

Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Bradshaw, L. A.; Cheng, L. K. 2012: Influence of body parameters on gastric bioelectric and biomagnetic fields in a realistic volume conductor. *Physiological Measurement 33(4*).

Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2012: Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential-based inverse methods. *Physics in Medicine and Biology 57(16).*

Kim, J. H. K.; Trew, M. L.; Pullan, A. J.; Roehrle, O. 2012: Simulating a dual-array electrode configuration to investigate the influence of skeletal muscle fatigue following functional electrical stimulation. *Computers in Biology and Medicine 42(9).*

O'Grady, G.; Angeli, T. R.; Du, P.; Lahr, C.; Lammers, W. J. E. P.; Windsor, J. A.; Abell, T. L.; Farrugia, G.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2012: Abnormal initiation and conduction of slow-wave activity in gastroparesis, defined by high-resolution electrical mapping. *Gastroenterology 143(3)*.

O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Paskaranandavadivel, N.; Angeli, T. R.; Lammers, W. J. E. P.; Asirvatham, S. J.; Windsor, J. A.; Farrugia, G.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2012: Rapid high-amplitude circumferential slow wave propagation during normal gastric pacemaking and dysrhythmias. *Neurogastroenterology and Motility 24(7*).

O'Grady, G.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2012: The analysis of human gastric pacemaker activity. *Journal of Physiology-London 590(5).*

Paskaranandavadivel, N.; O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2012: An improved method for the estimation and visualization of velocity fields from gastric high-resolution electrical mapping.* IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 59(3).*

Pau, J W L.; Chen, T. S. W.; Xie, S. S. Q.; Pullan, A. J. 2012: A Neuromuscular interface for the elbow joint. *Proceedings of IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics*. IEEE.

Pau, J. W. L.; Xie, S. S. Q.; Pullan, A. J. 2012: Neuromuscular interfacing: establishing an EMG-driven model for the human elbow joint. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 59(9)*.

Yassi, R.; O'Grady, G.; Paskaranandavadivel, N.; Du, P.; Angeli, T. R.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.; Erickson, J. C. 2012: The gastrointestinal electrical mapping suite (GEMS): software for analyzing and visualizing high-resolution (multi-electrode) recordings in spatiotemporal detail. *Bmc Gastroenterology 12.*

Zhao, J.; Butters, T. D.; Zhang, H.; Pullan, A. J.; LeGrice, I. J.; Sands, G. B.; Smaill, B. H. 2012: An image-based model of atrial muscular architecture: effects of structural anisotropy on electrical activation. Circulation. *Arrhythmia and electrophysiology 5(2).*

Bull, S. H.; O'Grady, G.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2011: A framework for the online analysis of multi-electrode gastric slow wave recordings. *Proceedings of Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society*. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.

Davidson, J. B.; O'Grady, G.; Arkwright, J. W.; Zarate, N.; Scott, S. M.; Pullan, A. J.; Dinning, P. G. 2011: Anatomical registration and three-dimensional visualization of low and high-resolution pan-colonic manometry recordings.* Neurogastroenterology and Motility 23(4)*.

Du, P.; O'Grady, G.; Paskaranandavadivel, N.; Angeli, T. R.; Lahr, C.; Abell, T. L.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2011: Quantification of velocity anisotropy during gastric electrical arrhythmia. *Proceedings of Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society*.

Du, P.; Poh, Y. C.; Lim, J. L.; Gajendiran, V.; O'Grady, G.; Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2011: A preliminary model of gastrointestinal electromechanical coupling. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 58(12).*

Erickson, J. C.; O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Egbuji, J. U.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2011: Automated gastric slow wave cycle partitioning and visualization for high-resolution activation time maps. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 39(1).*

Gao, J.; Du, P.; Archer, R.; O'Grady, G.; Gibbons, S. J.; Farrugia, G.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2011: A stochastic multi-scale model of electrical function in normal and depleted ICC networks. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 58(12).*

Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2011: Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential based inverse methods. *Proceedings of Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.*

Lees-Green, R.; Du, P.; O'Grady, G.; Beyder, A.; Farrugia, G.; Pullan, A. J. 2011: Biophysically based modeling of the interstitial cells of cajal: current status and future perspectives. *Frontiers in Physiology 2.*

O'Grady, G.; Egbuji, J. U.; Du, P.; Lammers, W. J. E. P.; Cheng, L. K.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J. 2011: High-resolution spatial analysis of slow wave initiation and conduction in porcine gastric dysrhythmia. *Neurogastroenterology and Motility 23(9).*

O'Grady, G.; Paskaranandavadivel, N.; Angeli, T. R.; Du, P.; Windsor, J. A.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2011: A comparison of gold versus silver electrode contacts for high-resolution gastric electrical mapping using flexible printed circuit board arrays. *Physiological Measurement 32(3).*

Paskaranandavadivel, N.; Cheng, L. K.; Du, P.; O'Grady, G.; Pullan, A. J. 2011: Improved signal processing techniques for the analysis of high resolution serosal slow wave activity in the stomach. *Proceedings of Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.*

Zhao, J.; Huang, W.; Yao, Y.; Trew, M. L.; Smaill, B. H.; Pullan, A. J.; Zhang, S. 2011: Electropathological substrate detection of persistent atrial fibrillation--a novel method to analyze unipolar electrograms of noncontact mapping. *Proceedings of Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.*

Cheng, L. K.; O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Egbuji, J. U.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J. 2010: Gastrointestinal system. *Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews-Systems Biology and Medicine 2(1)*.

Davidson, J. B.; O'Grady, G.; Pullan, A. J.; Dinning, P. G. 2010: 3D visualisation of colonic manometry data.* Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 25.*

Du, P.; O'Grady, G.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2010: A Multiscale Model of the Electrophysiological Basis of the Human Electrogastrogram. *Biophysical Journal 99(9).*

Du, P.; O'Grady G.; Davidson, J. B.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2010: Multiscale modeling of gastrointestinal electrophysiology and experimental validation. *Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 38(3).*

Du, P.; O'Grady, G. Gibbons, S. J.; Yassi, R.; Lees-Green, R.; Farrugia, G.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2010: Tissue-specific mathematical models of slow wave entrainment in wild-type and 5-HT2B knockout mice with altered interstitial cells of cajal networks. *Biophysical Journal 98(9).*

Egbuj, J. U.; O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Cheng, L. K.; Lammers, W. J. E. P.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J. 2010: Origin, propagation and regional characteristics of porcine gastric slow wave activity determined by high-resolution mapping.* Neurogastroenterology and Motility 22(10).*

Erickson, J. C.; O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Obioha, C.; Qiao, W.; Richards, W. O.; Bradshaw, L. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2010: Falling-Edge, Variable Threshold (FEVT) Method for the automated detection of gastric slow wave events in high-resolution serosal electrode recordings.* Annals of Biomedical Engineering 38(4).*

Kim, J. H. K.; Bradshaw, L. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2010: Characterization of Gastric Electrical Activity Using Magnetic Field Measurements: A Simulation Study. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 38(1).*

Komuro, R.; Qiao, W.; Pulla, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2010: Effects of volume conductor and source configuration on simulated magnetogastrograms. *Physics in Medicine and Biology 55(22).*

O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Cheng, L. K.; Egbuji, J. U.; Lammers, W. J. E. P.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J. 2010: Origin and propagation of human gastric slow-wave activity defined by high-resolution mapping. *American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 299(3).*

O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Lammers, W. J. E. P.; Egbuji, J. U.; Mithraratne, P.; Chen, J. D. Z.; Cheng, L. K.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J. 2010: High-resolution entrainment mapping of gastric pacing: a new analytical tool.* American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 298(2).*

Pau, J. W. L.; Saini, H.; Xie, S. S. Q.; Pullan, A. J.; Mallinson, G. 2010: An EMG-driven neuromuscular interface for human elbow joint. Proceedings of 3rd IEEE Ras and Embs International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics.

Yassi, R.; Cheng, L. K.; Al-Ali, S.; Sands, G.; Gerneke, D.; LeGrice, I.; Pullan, A. J.; Windsor, J. A. 2010: Three-dimensional high-resolution reconstruction of the human gastro-oesophageal junction. *Clinical Anatomy 23(3).*

Bradshaw, L. A.; Cheng, L. K.; Richards, W. O.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: Surface current density mapping for identification of gastric slow wave propagation. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 56(8)*.

Cheng, L. K.; O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Egbuji, J. U.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: Detailed measurements of gastric electrical activity and their implications on inverse solutions.

Du, P.; Li, S.; O'Grady, G.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Chen, J. D. Z. 2009: Effects of electrical stimulation on isolated rodent gastric smooth muscle cells evaluated via a joint computational simulation and experimental approach. *American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 297(4).*

Du, P.; O'Grady, G.;Egbuji, J. U.; Lammers, W. J.; Budgett, D.; Nielsen, P.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2009: High-resolution mapping of in vivo gastrointestinal slow wave activity using flexible printed circuit board electrodes: methodology and malidation. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 37(4).*

Du, P.; O'Grady, G.; Windsor, J. A.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: A tissue framework for simulating the effects of gastric electrical stimulation and in vivo validation. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 56(12).*

Du, P.; Qiao, W.; O'Grady, G.; Egbuji, J. U.; Lammers, W.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: Automated detection of gastric slow wave events and estimation of propagation velocity vector fields from serosal high-resolution mapping.

Faville, R. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Sanders, K. M.; Koh, S. D.; Lloyd, C. M.; Smith, N. P. 2009: Biophysically based mathematical modeling of interstitial cells of cajal slow wave activity generated from a discrete unitary potential basis. *Biophysical Journal 96(12).*

O'Grady, G.; Du, P.; Egbuji, J. U.; Lammers, W. J. E. P.; Wahab, A.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.; Windsor, J. A. 2009: A novel laparoscopic device for measuring gastrointestinal slow-wave activity. *Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques 23(12).*

O'Grady, G.; Egbuji, J. U.; Du, P.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Windsor, J. A. 2009: High-frequency gastric electrical stimulation for the treatment of gastroparesis: a meta-analysis. *World Journal of Surgery 33(8).*

Qiao, W.; Komuro, R.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2009: Volume conductor effects on simulated magnetogastrograms.

Roehrle, O.; Waddell, J. N.; Foster, K. D.; Saini, H.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: Using a motion-capture system to record dynamic articulation for application in CAD/CAM Software. *Journal of Prosthodontics-Implant Esthetic and Reconstructive Dentistry 18(8).*

Saini, H.; Wadell, J. N.; Pullan, A. J.; Rohrle, O. 2009: Automatically generating subject-specific functional tooth surfaces using virtual mastication. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 37(8).*

Yassi, R.; Cheng, L. K.; Rajagopal, V.; Nash, M. P.; Windsor, J. A.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: Modeling of the mechanical function of the human gastroesophageal junction using an anatomically realistic three-dimensional model. *Journal of Biomechanics 42(11).*

Zhao, J.; Smaill, B. H.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: A computer study of the effects of branching dimension on safety factor distribution and propagation in a cardiac conduction network.

Zhao, J.; Trew, M. L.; LeGrice, I. J.; Smaill, B. H.; Pullan, A. J. 2009: A tissue-specific model of reentry in the right atrial appendage. *Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 20(6).*

Cheng, L. K.; Hunter, P. J.; Mithraratne, K.; Pullan, A. J.; Remme, E. W.; Reynolds, H. M.; Smith, N. P.; Yassi, R. 2008: Clinical applications of Physiome Project models. *In*: Atherton, M. A.; Collins, M. W.; Dayer, M. J. *ed*., Repair and Redesign of Physiological Systems.

Du, P.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2008: Computer simulations of gastric stimulation. *Neurogastroenterology and Motility 20(6).*

Faville, R. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Sanders, K. M.; Smith, N. P. 2008: A biophysically based mathematical model of unitary potential activity in interstitial cells of Cajal. *Biophysical Journal 95(1)*.

Komuro, R.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2008: Comparison and analysis of inter-subject variability of simulated magnetic activity generated from gastric electrical activity.* Annals of Biomedical Engineering 36(6).*

Noakes, K. F.; Bissett, I. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2008: Anatomically realistic three-dimensional meshes of the pelvic floor & anal canal for finite element analysis.* Annals of Biomedical Engineering 36(6).*

Noakes, K. F.; Pullan, A. J.; Bissett, I. P.; Cheng, L. K. 2008: Subject specific finite elasticity simulations of the pelvic floor.* Journal of Biomechanics 41(14).*

Rohrle, O.; Davidson, J. B.; Pullan, A. J. 2008: Bridging scales: a three-dimensional electromechanical finite element model of skeletal muscle. *Siam Journal on Scientific Computing 30(6).*

Xu, W. L.; Bronlund, J. E.; Potgieter, J.; Foster, K. D.; Roehrle, O.; Pullan, A. J.; Kieser, J. A. 2008: Review of the human masticatory system and masticatory robotics. *Mechanism and Machine Theory 43(11).*

Zhao, J.; Amiri, A.; Sands, G. B.; Trew, M.; LeGrice, I.; Smaill, B. H.; Pullan, A. J. 2008: Structure specific models of electrical function in the right atrial appendage. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.

Austin, T. M.; Cheng, L. K.; Komuro, R.; Pullan, A. J. 2007: Simulations of human gastrointestinal electrical activity. *Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech 18(3).*

Austin, T. M.; Li, L.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K. 2007: Effects of gastrointestinal tissue structure on computed dipole vectors. *Biomedical Engineering Online 6.*

Cheng, L. K.; Komuro, R.; Austin, T. M.; Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J. 2007: Anatomically realistic multiscale models of normal and abnormal gastrointestinal electrical activity. *World Journal of Gastroenterology 13(9).*

Cheng, L. K.; Komuro, R.; Austin, T. M.; Pullan, A. J. 2007. Anatomically realistic models of normal and abnormal gastric electrical activity. *Neurogastroenterology and Motility 19(6).*

Kim, J. H. K.; Davidson, J. B.; Roehrle, O.; Soboleva, T. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2007: Anatomically based lower limb nerve model for electrical stimulation. *Biomedical Engineering Online 6.*

Mabotuwana, T. D. S.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 2007: A model of blood flow in the mesenteric arterial system. *Biomedical Engineering Online 6.*

Rohrle, O.; Pullan, A. J. 2007: Three-dimensional finite element modelling of muscle forces during mastication.* Journal of Biomechanics 40(15).*

Trew, M. L.; Smaill, B. H.; Pullan, A. J. 2007: Relating discontinuous cardiac electrical activity to mesoscale tissue structures: Detailed image based modeling. *In*: Sachse, F. B.; Seemann, G* ed*., Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart, Proceedings.

Austin, T. M.; Hooks, D. A.; Hunter, P. J.; Nickerson, D. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Sands, G. B.; Smaill, B. H.; Trew, M. L. 2006: Modeling cardiac electrical activity at the cell and tissue levels. *In*: Sideman, S.; Beyar, R.; Landesberg, A. *ed*., Interactive and Integrative Cardiology.

Austin, T. M.; Trew, M. L.; Pullan, A. J. 2006: Solving the cardiac bidomain equations for discontinuous conductivities. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 53(7).*

Cheng, L. K.; Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J. 2006: Anatomically realistic torso model for studying the relative decay of gastric electrical and magnetic fields.

Davidson, J. B.; Kim, J.; Cheng, L. K.; Rohrle, O.; Shorten, P. R.; Soboleva, T. K.; Clarke, R. D.; Pullan, A. J. 2006: Mathematically modeling the effects of electrically stimulating skeletal muscle.

Hooks, D. A.; Trew, M. L.; Smaill, B. H.; Pullan, A. J. 2006: Do intramural virtual electrodes facilitate successful defibrillation? Model-based analysis of experimental evidence.* Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 17(3).*

Irimia, A.; Cheng, L. K.; Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J.; Bradshaw, L. A. 2006: An integrative software package for gastrointestinal biomagnetic data acquisition and analysis using SQUID magnetometers. *Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 83(2).*

Lin, A. S.; Buist, A. L.; Cheng, L. K.; Smith, N. P.; Pullan, A. J. 2006: Computational simulations of the human magneto-and electroenterogram. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 34(8).*

Lin, A. S-H.; Buist, M. L.; Smith, N. P.; Pullan, A. J. 2006: Modelling slow wave activity in the small intestine. *Journal of Theoretical Biology 242(2).*

Mabotuwana, T. D. S.; Cheng, L. K.; Smith, N. P.; Pullan, A. J. 2006: Modeling blood flow in the gastrointestinal system.

Noakes, K. F.; Bissett, I. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K 2006: Anatomically based computational models of the male and female pelvic floor and anal canal. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society.

Trew, M. L.; Caldwell, B. J.; Sands, G. B.; Hooks, D. A.; Tai, D. C. S.; Austin, T. M.; LeGrice, I. J.; Pullan, A. J.; Smaill, B. H. 2006: Cardiac electrophysiology and tissue structure: bridging the scale gap with a joint measurement and modelling paradigm. *Experimental Physiology 91(2).*

Caldwell, B. J.; Legrice, I. J.; Hooks, D. A.; Tai, D. C. S.; Pullan, A. J.; Smaill, B. H. 2005: Intramural measurement of transmembrane potential in the isolated pig heart: Validation of a novel technique. *Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 16(9).*

Cheng, L. K.; Sands, G. B.; French, R. L.; Withy, S. J.; Wong, S. P.; Legget, M. E.; Smith, W. M.; Pullan, A. J. 2005: Rapid construction of a patient-specific torso model from 3D ultrasound for non-invasive imaging of cardiac electrophysiology. *Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing 43(3).*

Cheng, L. K.; Sands, G. B.; Pullan, A. J. 2005: Construction of patient specific geometries suitable for the inverse problem of electrocardiography. *Proceedings of 27th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vols 1-7.*

Nash, M. P.; Pullan, A. J. 2005: Challenges facing validation of noninvasive electrical imaging of the heart. *Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology 10(1).*

Trew, M. L.; Smaill, B. H.; Bullivant, D. P.; Hunter, P. J.; Pullan, A. J. 2005: A generalized finite difference method for modeling cardiac electrical activation on arbitrary, irregular computational meshes. *Mathematical Biosciences 198(2).*

van Essen, N. L.; Anderson, I. A.; Hunter, P. J.; Carman, J. B.; Clarke, R. D.; Pullan, A. J. 2005: Anatomically based modelling of the human skull and jaw. *Cells Tissues Organs 180(1).*

Buist, M. L.; Cheng, L. K.; Yassi, R.; Bradshaw, L. A.; Richards, W. O.; Pullan, A. J. 2004: An anatomical model of the gastric system for producing bioelectric and biomagnetic fields. *Physiological Measurement 25(4).*

Lee, J. J.; Pullan, A. J.; Smith, N. P. 2004: A computational model of microcirculatory network structure and transient coronary microcirculation.

Lin, A. S. H.; Smith, N. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Buist, M. L. 2004: An anatomically based model of small intestine excitation. *Proceedings of Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society*. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 2.

Niederer, S. A.; Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J.; Smith, N. P. 2004: Computing work in the ischemic heart.

Smaill, B. H.; LeGrice, I. J.; Hooks, D. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Caldwell, B. J.; Hunter, P. J. 2004: Cardiac structure and electrical activation: Models and measurement. *Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 31(12).*

Tai, D. C. S.; Caldwell, B. J.; LeGrice, I. J.; Hooks, D. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Smaill, B. H. 2004: Correction of motion artifact in transmembrane voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye emission in hearts. *American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 287(3).*

Yassi, R.; Cheng, L. K.; Al-Ali, S.; Smith, N. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Windsor, J. A. 2004: An anatomically based mathematical model of the gastroesophageal junction.

Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J. 2003: The effect of torso impedance on epicardial and body surface potentials: A modeling study. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 50(7).*

Lines, G. T.; Buist, M. L.; Grottum, P.; Pullan, A. J.; Sundnes, J.; Tveito, A. 2003: Mathematical models and numerical methods for the forward problem in cardiac electrophysiology. *Computing and Visualization in Science** 5(4).*

Cheng, L. K.; Bodley, J. M.; Pullan, A. J. 2003: Comparison of potential- and activation-based formulations for the inverse problem of electrocardiology. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 50(1).*

Cheng, L. K.; Bodley, J. M.; Pullan, A. J. 2003: Effects of experimental and modeling errors on electrocardiographic inverse formulations. I*EEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 50(1).*

Hunter, P. J.; Pullan, A. J.; Smaill, B. H. 2003: Modeling total heart function.* Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering 5.*

Buist, M.; Sands, G.; Hunter, P. J.; Pullan, A. J. 2003: A deformable finite element derived finite difference method for cardiac activation problems. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering** 31(5).*

Pullan, A. J.; Buist, M. L.; Sands, G. B.; Cheng, L. K.; Smith, N. P. 2003: Cardiac electrical activity - From heart to body surface and back again. *Journal of Electrocardiology 36.*

Smith, N. P.; Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J. 2003: Altered T wave dynamics in a contracting cardiac model. *Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 14(10).*

Pullan, A. J.; Smith, N. P.; Hunter, P. J. 2002: An anatomically based model of transient coronary blood flow in the heart. *SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics** 62(3).*

Hooks, D. A.; Tomlinson, K. A.; Marsden, S. G.; LeGrice, I. J.; Smaill, B. H.; Pullan, A. J.; Hunter, P. J. 2002: Cardiac microstructure - Implications for electrical, propagation and defibrillation in the heart. *Circulation Research 91(4).*

Pullan, A. J.; Tomlinson, K. A.; Hunter, P. J. 2002: A finite element method for an eikonal equation model of myocardial excitation wavefront propagation.* SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics 63(1).*

Bradley, C. P.; Pullan, A. J. 2002: Application of the BEM in biopotential problems.* Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements 26(5). *

Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J. 2002: Torso coupling techniques for the forward problem of electrocardiography. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering** 30(10).*

Nash, M. P.; Bradley, C. P.; Kardos, A.; Pullan, A. J.; Paterson, D. J. 2002: An experimental model to correlate simultaneous body surface and epicardial electropotential recordings. *In*: *Chaos, Solitons & Fractals** 13(8).*

Bradley, C. P.; Harris, G. M.; Pullan, A. J. 2001: The computational performance of a high-order coupled FEM/BEM procedure in electropotential problems. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering** 48(11).*

Buist, M. L.; Pullan, A. J. 2001: From cell to body surface: A fully coupled approach. *Journal of Electrocardiology 34.*

Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.; Nash, M. P.; Bradley, C. P.; Paterson, D. J. 2001: Noninvasive electrical imaging of the heart: Theory and model development*. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 29(10).*

Pullan, A. J.; Paterson, D.; Greensite, F. 2001: Non-invasive imaging of cardiac electrophysiology. *Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences.*

Pullan, A. J. 2001: The inverse problem of electrocardiography: modelling, experimental and clinical issues. *Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering** 46(s2).*

Schulte, R. F.; Sands, G. B.; Sachse, F. B.; Dössel, O.; Pullan, A. J. 2001: Creation of a Human Heart, Model and its Customisation using Ultrasound Images. *Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering** 46(s2).*

Nash, M. P.; Bradley, C. P.; Cheng, L. K.; Pulla, A. J.; Paterson, D. J. 2000: An experimental-computational framework for validating in-vivo ECG inverse methods.* International Journal of Bioelectromagnetism 2(2).*

Nash, M. P.; Bradley, C. P.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Paterson, D. J. 2000: Electrocardiographic inverse validation study: In-vivo mapping and analysis. *FASEB J**ournal 14(4)*.

Bradley, C. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Hunter, P. J. 2000: Effects of material properties and geometry on electrocardiographic forward simulations. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 28(7).*

Howatson, Tawhai M.; Pullan, A. J.; Hunter, P. J. 2000: Generation of an anatomically based three-dimensional model of the conducting airways. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 28(7).*

Smith, N. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Hunter, P. J. 2000: Generation of an anatomically based geometric coronary model. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 28(1).*

Tomlinson, K. A.; Pullan, A. J.; Hunter, P. J. 1999: Modelling myocardial excitation wavefront propagation in ventricles by finite element solution of an eikonal equation. Engineering in Medicine and Biology. *Proceedings of 21st Annual Conference and the 1999 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society*, IEEE.

Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J. 1999: Towards non-invasive electrical heart imaging. Engineering in Medicine and Biology. *Proceedings of 21st Annual Conference and the 1999 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society*, IEEE.

Hunter, P. J.; Nielsen, P. M. F.; Pullan, A. J. 1999: The integrated heart-a progress report on the Cardiome project. Engineering in Medicine and Biology. *Proceedings of 21st Annual Conference and the 1999 Annual Fall Meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society*, IEEE.

Tomlinson, K. A.; Bradley, C. P.; Pullan, A. J. 1998: On the choice of a derivative boundary element formulation using Hermite interpolation.* International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 39.3.*

Bradley, C. P.; Pullan, A. J.; Hunter, P. J. 1997: Geometric modeling of the human torso using cubic hermite elements. *Annals of Biomedical Engineering 25(1).*

Bradley, C. P.; Nash, M. P.; Cheng, L. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Paterson, D. J. 1997: Electrocardiographic inverse validation study: Model development and methodology. *Biomedical Eng**ineering 44*.

Pullan, A. J.; Bradley, C. P. 1997: A computational procedure for modelling electrical activity from heart to body surface. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. *Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference of the IEEE.*

Pullan, A. J. 1996: A high-order coupled finite element/boundary element torso model. *IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering,** 43.3.*

Pullan, A. J.; Bradley, C. P. 1996: A coupled cubic hermite finite element/boundary element procedure for electrocardiographic problems.* Computational Mechanics 18.5.*

Brunton, I. L.; Pullan, A. J. 1996: A semi-analytic boundary element method for parabolic problems. *Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements** 18(4)*.

Pullan, A. J. 1992: Linearized time-dependent infiltration from a shallow pond. *Water Resources Research** 28.4.*

Pullan, A. J. 1992: Pressurized steady state flows from spherical cavities.* Water Resources Research 28.7. *

Pullan, A. J. 1990: Coupled saturated-unsaturated quasilinearized steady state flows from buried and surface cavities."* Water Resources Research 26.*

Pullan, A. J. 1990: The quasilinear approximation for unsaturated porous media flow. *Water Resources Research** 26.6.*

Pullan, A. J. 1988: Boundary element solutions of quasilinearised time-dependent infiltration.* Applied Mathematical Modelling 12.1.*

Pullan, A. J. 1988: Quasilinearised infiltration and the boundary element method. Department of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, School of Engineering, University of Auckland.

Pullan, A. J.; Collin, I. F. 1987: Two-and three-dimensional steady quasi-linear infiltration from buried and surface cavities using boundary element techniques.* Water Resources Research 23.8.*

Obituary was lodged on website on Thursday, 14 March 2013.